PART 2- CHRONICLE OF ELECTRO-PHYSICS DISCOVERIES And inventions

(Including Nobel laureates)

1901-2018

Compiled by H. Javan, D. Sc., E.E., P.E., E.E.

Date Events Author/Affiliation Nationality
6th cen. BC Discovery of static electricity by rubbing fur on amber. Knowledge of lodestone, soul connection Thales of Miletus/

Ionian/Milesian-Naturalism

Greek
1st. cen BC Discovery the magnetic properties of some stone on Mount Ida when the nails of his shoes adhered to it Magnes/Possible real person Greek
1088 Discovery of magnetic needle by rubbing iron to lodestone. Discovery of true north using magnetic needle Shen Kuo Chinese
1560 Observation of fluorescence, emission of light by a substance upon radiation Bernardino de Sahagún Spanish
1600 Magnetic properties of earth. Artificially magnetizing iron

Loss of charge upon heating

Effect of moisture on static charge

William Gilbert/Royal College of Physician, London British
1637

 

1644

Calculation reflection and refraction of light.

Introduction of Cartesian coordinate system

Rene Descartes/Leiden University French
1640-50

 

1665

Free fall- distance of fall proportional to the square of the time.

Accurate observations of light diffraction

Francesco Maria rimaldi/

Jesuit college .

Italian
1656

 

1659

 

1678

Invention of the pendulum clock,

T =2π√l/g

Derivation of centripetal force:

F = mv2/r

Wave theory of light

Christian Huygens/Univ of: Leiden,

Angers

Dutch
1660

1665

Hook’s law of elasticity.

All bodies move in straight lines

Robert Hooke/Oxford University British
1662 Explaining reflection and refraction of light by least time principle Pierre de Fermat/Univ of Orleans French
1663 Construction of a primitive electrostatic generating via the triboelectric effect Otto von Guericke/

Univ of Leiden

German
1669 Discovery of double refraction of light by calcite Rasmus Bartholin/

Univ of Copenhagen

Danish
1671

 

1687

Decomposition of white light in to spectrum.

Universal gravitational law,

F = kM1 M2/R2

Isaac Newton/Trinity College, British
1705-06 Generating glow by approaching his finger to the rubbed vacuumed glass globe, which had small amount of mercury. Francis Hauksbee, The elder/

Royal Society.

British
1729 Transmission of static electricity by thin wire. Birth of conductor and insulator Stephen Gray,/Trinity College,

Granville Wheler/ Christ’s College

British

British

1745 Invention of capacitor jar coated inside and outside with metal Ewald Georg von Kleist/Univ of Leyden German
1750 Method of producing magnet. Decrease of magnetic force in proportion to the square of the distance John Michl/Royal Society British
1750

1753

Suggestion for making artificial magnet. Electrostatic induction John Canton/Royal Society British
1752 Extracting charges from low cloud using 40 feet long iron rod. Thomas-François Dalibard/

Colleague of

Benjamin Franklin

French
1752 Establishing the link between lightning and electricity. Invention of lightning rod Benjamin Franklin/

Royal Society

American
1752 Tongue test of battery Johann George Sulze/Berlin Academy Swiss-German
1753 Electrostatic telegraph using one wire for each letter of the alphabet Scots Magazine/St Andrew’s Society Scottish
1759 Electrical force varies inversely as the square of distance Franz Aepinus/

Russian Academy of Science

German-Russian
1762

1777

Discovery of Divergence Theorem.

Concept of scalar potential

Joseph Louis Lagrange/Univ of Turin Italian-French
1767 Discovery of inverse-square law for electrical force Joseph Priestley/

Warrington Academy

British
1771

 

1778

Measurement of dielectric constant. The formula for the capacitance of a plate capacitor

Laws for the division of current in parallel circuits

Henry Cavendish/

 

Peterhouse, Cambridge

British
1780

 

 

1786

Animal electricity: Galvani’s assistant touches an exposed sciatic nerve of the frog with a metal scalpel that had picked up a charge excites nerve system of a dead frog.

Construction of nerve system probe

Luigi Galvani/

Univ of Bologna

Italian
1785 Laplace equation:

\fn_cm \bigtriangledown ^{2}V=0

Laplace transform:

F(s) = ∫f (t) e-st dt

Pierre – Simon Laplace/Univ of Caen French
1785 Introduction of the inverse-square law of electrostatics,

F = k Q1 Q1/r2

Charles –Augustin de Coulomb/

École royale du génie de Mézières

French
1800 Invention of battery, zinc-copper+acid or salt water Alessandro Volta/Univ of Pavia, Italian
1800 Synthesis of water in to hydrogen and oxygen W. Nicholson,

A. Carlisle/

Royal Institution.

British,

British

1802

1803

1807

Young–Helmholtz theory

(color vision)

Double-slit experiment

Young’s Modulus

E = Stress/Strain

Thomas Young/Univ of: Edinburgh, Göttingen British
1802-1806

 

1807

First incandescent light by passing electric current through a thin strip of platinum.

Discovery of sodium and potassium

Sir Humphry DavyRoyal Society,

Royal Institution

British
1802 Possibility of deflection of magnetic needle by voltaic pile Gian Domenico Romagnosi,/

Univ of:Parma, Pavia, Pisa, Milan

Italian
1809

1810

Polarization of light by reflection.

Theory of double refraction of light in crystals

Etienne Louis Malus/Institute d’Égypte,

Académie des Sciences

French
1810

 

1821

Magnetic properties of nickel and cobalt.

Thermoelectric effect (thermocouple)

V = a (Th ─ Tc)

Thomas J. Seebeck/Univ of: Berlin, Gottingen. Estonian
1812

1824

First polarizer filter.

Rotary magnetism, eddy current

François Arago/

École Polytechnique

French,
1812

 

1813

Charge on conductors must reside on their surfaces;

Electric field at the surface of a conductor is perpendicular to the surface.

Simeon Denis Poisson/École Polytechnique French
1815

 

1820

Rotation of direction of electric field of linearly polarized light C.W. or C.C.W.depending on the axis of the material using the concept of corpuscles nature of light

Biot-Savart law of electromagnetic

Jean-Baptiste Biot/École Polytechnique

Félix Savart/

Collège de France

Biot–Savart /

Collège de France

French

 

French

 

French

1815 Complete polarization of light upon reflection at special angle, Brewster angle.

Discovery of two types of crystals; Uni-axial and bi-axial

David Brewster/Edinburgh University Scottish
1816-18 Diffraction theory of Fresnel.

Young’s transverse light wave

Abolition of particle theory of light

Augustin Fresnel/École Polytechnique

Thomas Young/

Univ of: Edinburgh, Göttingen,

Emmanuel College,

Siméon Poisson/

École Polytechnique

French

 

British

 

French

1820 Deflection of magnetic needle with switching on- off electric current using batteries Hans Christian Ørsted/

Univ. of Copenhagen

Danish
1820

 

1823

 

1825

Ampere force law, magneto static, long wire:

F/L = k I1 I2/r2,

Ampere Circuit law:

c H.dl = If

André-Marie Ampère/

École Polytechnique

French
1824

 

1825

 

1832

First artificial electromagnet. Lifting nine pounds with a seven-ounce piece of iron wrapped with wire through which a current from a single battery was sent.

Demonstration of DC electric motor

William Sturgeon/

Adelaide Gallery of Practical Science in London,

British
1827 Ohm’s law of electrical resistance, V=RI

The unit ohm (Ω) of electrical resistance

Georg Simon Ohm/

Univ of: Erlangen, Munich

German
1827 Wave theory of light, diffraction,polarization,

Fresnel’s sine and tangent laws of reflection.

Augustin Fresnel/

Corps des Ponts,

École Polytech.

French
1828

 

 

 

1837

Green’s theorem in mathematics; conversion of area integral to line integral:

\fn_cm {\color{Blue} \iint_{a}^{b}\left ( \partial g/\partial x-\partial f/\partial y \right )dx\, dy= \int \left ( f\, dx+g\, dy \right )}

Green’s elastic theory,

Cauchy-Green tensor

George Green/Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge British
1828 – 1855 Elastic properties, stress tensor, complex function and integral.

Eight hundred research articles and five complete textbooks.

Augustine- Louis Cauchy/École Centrale du Panthéon

École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées,

École Polytech

French
1829-1830 Production of electric currents in closed circuits by the approach and withdrawal of a magnet Francesco Zantedeschi/

Univ of Padua

Italian
 

 

 

 

1831-1854

 

 

 

 

Electromagnetic induction, electric dynamo,The first NTC thermistor

Discovery of self inductance

Idea of dielectric constant, ɞr

Faraday rotation (plane of polarization of light) in presence of magnetic field

Inclusion of capacitance in measuring the speed of signal along the transmission line

Michael Faraday/

Royal Institution

British
1831

1835

1845

 

Electric door bell. Invention electric relay,

Properties of self and mutual inductance

Induction coil of higher order

Joseph Henry/The Albany Academy,

The College of New Jersey,

Smithsonian Inst.

American
1832 Early form of alternating current generator, converting AC to DC using commutator Hippolyte Pixii/

Instrument maker

French
1832

 

1845-47

Laws of double refraction,

Newman’s Law of induction of electric current.

Introducing vector potential

Franz Neumann/Univ of: Berlin,

Königsberg

German
1833 Invention of Wheat stone bridge Samuel H.Christie/Trinity College British
1833

 

 

 

 

1846

1856

Invention of first electromagnetic telegraph.

 

Derivation of velocity dependent potential energy, proved to be wrong

Ratio of E/H = c

c is the speed of electromagnetic wave , = 3 x 108 m/s in vacuum

Wilhelm Weber/Univ of: Göttingen, Hal, Leipzi

Carl Friedrich Gauss/University of Göttingen

Wilhelm Weber

 

Wilhelm Weber,

Rudolf Kohlrausch/

Univ of: MarburgErlangen

Germans
1834

1840

Discovery of opposite effect of thermocouple.

Electro static induction

Jean C. A. Peltier/Physicist French
1834 Lenz’s law, reaction to increasing or decreasing magnetic field Emil Lenz/Univ of Tartu Russian
1834

 

1838

 

1842-45

Invention of first electric motor. Theory of maximum power transfer

Electrotyping, process for making duplicate plates

Building a telegraph line

Moritz Hermann von Jacobi/Russian Academy of Sciences German
1836 First Induction coil Nicholas Callan/

Maynooth College

Irish
1836-1858 First American electric telegraph.

Invention short range type of telephone

Introduction of spectrum analysis

Dr. David Alter/

Reformed Medical School in N.Y.

American
1837 Demonstration of a working model of the telegraph in Exeter Hall, Patent 1838

Invention of electric relay

Edward Davy/Royal College of Surgeons British
1839 Improvements in photographic processes, the precursors of the modern blue print Color reproduction using photosensitive emulsions of vegetable juices John Herschel/St John’s College, Cambridge British
1839

1840

First photovoltaic cell.

Discovery of photography using silver halides

Alexandre E. Becquerel/

Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers

French
1841 Conservation of energy, first law of thermodynamics.

Conversion of light in to chemical energy by plant

Julius Robert von Mayer/University of Tübening Germany
1841

 

1843

Heat developed in electric circuit,

P = RI2x t

Conversion of work to heat,

First law of thermodynamics

James Prescott Joule/

London Electrical Society,

British
1842 Change of frequency of moving source, Doppler effect Christian Doppler/Univ of Vienna Austrian
1844 Development of telegraphy and Morse code Samuel Morse/Yale College

Alfred Vail/

New York University

American

 

American

 

1845

1857

 

1859

1860-61

Kirchhoff’s Laws,

∑ V = RI, ∑I = 0

Derivation of full telegraph equation for coaxial cable by including L and C

Law’s of thermal radiation

Discovery cesium and rubidium

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff/

Univ of: Berlin, Breslau, Heidelberg

Kirchhoff /See above-

Robert Bunsen/

Polytechnic School of Kassel, Univ of: Marburg,

Heidelberg, Breslau

German

 

German

 

1847

 

1877

 

1880

Invention of a telegraph that used a needle to point to the right letter, instead of using Morse code. Birth of Siemens Company.

Development of primitive loud speaker- German patent No. 2355

Production the tubes with which Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen investigated x-rays

World’s first electric elevator

Wener von Siemens/Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halsek German
1849

 

1851

1852

1862

1864

Dynamic theory of diffraction. Conduction of heat in crystals

Fluorescence, change of wavelength by certain material upon shinning

Stokes’s shift

Double refraction

The chemical identification of organic bodies by their optical properties

George Gabriel Stokes/

Pembroke College, Cambridge

Irish
 

 

 

1850-1862

 

 

 

Measuring speed of light, retardation of light in dense materials.

Foucault pendulum

Eddy current (Foucault current)

Invention of polarizer

Accurate measurement speed of light using mirror

Léon Foucault/Univ of Paris French
1851-54

 

Magnetoresistance effect. Thomson effect: Rate of heat flow/volume

q’ = k J T, k = T ds/dt

(s = Seebeck coefficient).

Laws of thermodynamics

Derivation of formula for magnetic energy

Theory of RLC circuit

Relation between Seebeck and Peltier coefficients :

k = dp/dt ─S

Equation of telegraphy ignoring the inductance

Sir William Thomson

Lord Kelvin/

University of Glasgow

British
1855 French neurologist who revived Galvani’s research (1780-1786) and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology. Guillaume Duchnne/neurologist French
1860 Invention of microphone/telephone Johann Philipp Reis/ Garnier’s Inst. German
1860-1873

 

Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, for gases

Calculation speed of electromagnetic wave

Dispersive medium

Maxwell equations of electromagnetic

James Clerk Maxwell/

Marischal College,

King’s College,

Univ of Cambridge

British
1860-1879 Demonstrate a working device, and obtained a British patent covering a partial vacuum lamp.

Publicly demonstrated a working lamp in the lecture theater of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle, British patent 4933

Joseph Swan/ Mawson, Swan and Morgan Co British
1869

 

1890

Relationship between the refractive index and the density of a medium

Discover that light reflected by a thin transition layer between two media becomes elliptically polarized.

Ludwig Lorenz/Technical University , Military Academy in Copenhagen Danish
1869 Ions Transport Number, migration of ions.

Cast of shadow of an object by placing the object between the cathode and the illuminating side of the tube

Johann Wilhelm Hittorf/University of Münster German
1869-71 Invention the Helmholtz resonator to identify the various frequencies of the pure sine wave Helmholtz equation:

\fn_cm \triangledown ^{2}A+k^{2}A= 0

A = amplitude, k = 2π/λ

Hermann von Helmholtz/

Univ of: Königsbergversit, Bonn, Heidelberg,

Berlin

German
1873-1879

 

Invention of Crooke’s radiometer, converting light to rotation (light mill)Invention of Crooke tube Sir William Crookes/

Royal College

British
1873

 

1880

 

Condensation and critical temperature.

Equation of state for gases and liquid

Nobel prize 1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals/Univ of: Leiden Netherland
1874

1897

1905

1894

1897-

Point contact rectifier.

Invention of CRT

Phased array antenna

Two U.S. patents

Storm alarm

Invention of wireless transmission

British and U.S. patents

Joint Nobel prize 1909

Karl F. Braun/Univ of: Strassburg, Tubingen,

Wurzbur

Guglielmo Marconi/

Marconi Company

German

 

Italian

1875 Discovery of double refraction in solid and liquid dielectrics in an electrostatic field.

Electro optic effect, Kerr effect:

Δn = k E2,

2. Magneto optic effect

John Kerr/Free Church Training College Scottish
1876 Invention of telephone

18 patents: optical telecommunications, hydrofoils, and aeronautics

professor of Vocal Physiology and Elocution at the Boston University

Alexander Graham Bell/A T&T, University of Edinburgh Scottish
1876

 

1882

 

Creation of magnetic effects from moving static charges.

Magnetism may be due to the motion of molecules carrying static charges.

Diffraction grating

Henry Augustus Rowland/

Univ of: Wooster, RPI, Johns Hopkins

American
1878-1882

 

Carbon microphone. Commercial incandescent light bulb

Thermionic emission

World’s first electrical power distribution system, providing 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers, 1,093 US patents

Thomas Edison/ Edison Electric Light Company American
1879-84 Total energy radiated per unit surface area is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature:

j = σ T4

Josef Stefan/

University of Vienna

John Tyndall/

Royal Institution of Great Britain

Austrian,

 

Irish

 

 

Austrian

 

1879 Production of voltage difference in a conductor or semiconductor subject to transverse electric and magnetic field,Hall-effect Edwin Hall/Harvard Univ American
1880

1895-1896

 

1896

1898

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discovery of Piezoelectric effect.

Ferromagnetism, critical temperature

Paramagnetism, effect of temperature, Curie’s law

diamagnetism, no temperature effect

Discovery of radium and polonium

Discovery of spontaneous radioactivity,

Radiation from uranium salt

First discovery of nuclear energy,

Separation of polonium and radium

Identification of Alpha, beta, gamma rays

Note: Pierre died from an accident under a heavy horse-drawn cart.

All his family, wife, daughter, and her husband died from exposes to radioactivity

*Joint Nobel prize 1903

* Pierre Curie/Univ of Paris

Jacques Curie/

University of Montpellier

*Antoine Henri Becquerel/

Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle

*Pierre Curie,

Marie Skłodowska-Curie/ Univ of Paris

French

 

 

 

Polish-French

1883-1887 Measurement the speed of light using interferometer, Michelson–Morley experiment, ruling out the existence of ether

First American

Nobel Prize 1907

Albert Abraham Michelson/

Case Western Reserve,

Clark University,

Univ of Chicago

American-Polish
1884 Introduction of Poynting vector of electromagnetic energy

S = E x H, (Watts/m2)

John Henry Poyting Mason Science College, University of Birmingham British
1886-89

 

1887

Production and detection of radio wave using spark gap at 100 MHz Effect of U.V. light on negative electrode

Discovery of oscillating sparks in the secondary both having the same resonant frequency

Heinrich Hertz/

Univ of: Kiel,

Karlsruhe,

Bonn

German
1887 Invention of gramophone record

patented

Emile Berliner/Cooper Union Inst. German-American
1887

 

1893

 

1898

Development of induction motor,High frequency wireless power transmission

Tesla coil

Tesla Polyphase System

Remote control vehicle

278 patents issued to Tesla in 26 countries

Nikola Tesla/

Graz University of Technology

Serbian-American
1888 Poly phase motor, rotating magnetic field,Birth of induction motor Galileo Ferraris/Independent researcher Italian
1888

 

 

 

1894

Simulation of lightning, generating electromagnetic waves.

Experiment with electromagnetic using cohere detector and mirror galvanometer.

“Syntonic” tuning, patented.

Oliver Joseph Lodge/University of Birmingham British
1889 Fitz Gerald–Lorentz contraction, length contraction of moving objects George Francis FitzGerad /Trinity College Irish
1891 Color photography using the interference method

Nobel prize 1908

Gabriel Lippmann/Sorbonne French
1892

 

1896

 

1904

 

Transformation equation, basis of Einstein relativistic theory.

Length contraction of moving bodies

Zeeman Effect, splitting of spectral lines by a magnetic field

Increase of the inertial mass of rapidly moving bodies

Joint Nobel prize 1902

Hendrik Lorentz/ Leiden University, Netherlands, Pieter

 

Zeeman/

Leyden University

Hendrik Lorentz/

University of Leiden

Net’lands

 

Net’lands

1893

 

1922-23

 

Invention of Cloud Chamber: Condensation of charged particles by condensation.

Discovery wave-particle nature of light, Compton effect

Joint Nobel prize 1927

Charles Thomson Rees Wilson/Sidney Sussex Col.

Arthur H.Compton/

Washington Univ –

St.Louis

British

 

American

1893

 

1896-97

 

 

1905

1906

 

First structure for waveguide.

Discovery of electron

Accurate value for charge-to-mass ratio,

Deflection of cathode rays by crossed electric and magnetic field.

Radioactivity of potassium

Hydrogen possess single electron

Nobel prize 1906

Joseph John Thomson/Trinity College, Cambridge British
1894 Cathode rays, ray produced by irradiating metals depend on the wavelength, not on the intensity

Nobel Prize 1905

Philip Lenard/University of Heidelberg and Kiel Hungarian-German
1894

 

 

 

1900

 

 

1905

 

Discovery of argon and several gases.

Rayleigh scattering, Rayleigh probability distribution function:

Spectral radiance of electromagnetic radiation for longer wavelengths:

Bλ= 2c kBT/λ4

kB Boltzmann constant

Rayl unit of acoustic impedance

Joint Nobel prize 1904

Lord Rayleigh/Trinity College, Cambridge

William Ramsay/

University College

Lord Rayleigh

British
1894-1906

1899

1903

1910

Producing colors photographically based on the phenomenon of interference.

Discovery of two types of radiation from uranium, alpha and beta radiation

Discovery of gamma ray

Joint Nobel prize 1908

Gabriel Lippmann/Sorbonne

Ernest Rutherford/

McGill Univ.

Univ of: Manchester,

Cambridge

French

New Zealander

British

1895 Discover of X-ray

First Nobel Prize in physics, 1901

Wilhelm Roentgen/Univ of: Würzburg, Munich German
1895-1905 Determination charge of cathode rays

Determination of Avogadro constant

Explanation of solar energy as due to the thermonuclear reactions of hydrogen

Nobel prize 1926

Jean Baptiste Perrin/École Normale Supérieure,

Univ of Paris

French
1896

 

 

1898

 

 

1900

Empirically determination of distribution law of black

body radiation,

λmax T= constant.

Identification of a positive particle equal in mass to the hydrogen atom, proton

Relation between electromagnetic mass and the electromagnetic energy,

m = (4/3)E/c2

Nobel Prize 1911

Wilhelm Wien/Univ of Wurzburg,

RWTH, Achen.

German
1896 Discovery of nickel-steel alloys he named invar and elinvar. Invar has a near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion, Elinvar has a near-zero thermal coefficient of the modulus of elasticity and in non-magnetic.

Nobel prize 1920

Charles E’ douard Guillaume/Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Serves Sw’rland
1896

 

1908-14

Discovery magnetic focusing

Generation of an electrical signal by projecting an image onto a selenium-coated metal plate that was simultaneously scanned by a cathode ray beam

Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton/Fettes College, Edinburgh Scottish
1900 Quantum theory, each particle has

E = hf

of energy, a quanta.

h = Planck’s constant = 6.626×10-34 j.s.

Black body radiation:

Note: for low T or longer wavelength this reduces to Rayleigh equation

Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918

Max Planck/

Univ of Kiel,

Gottingen,

Kaiser Wilhelm Society

German
1900 Photoelectric effect

Cathode rays

Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905

Philipp Lenard/

University of:

Aachen, Bonn, Breslau, Heidelberg, Kiel

Austrian-Hungry,German
1900

 

1905

Introduction of electromagnetic momentum by comparing electromagnetic energy to what he called a “fictitious fluid” of

mas        m=E/c^2

Declaration of the relativity principle

Henri Poincare/École Polytechnique

École des Mines

University of Paris

French
1900

 

1903

 

Important measurements of black-body radiation.Birth of quantum physics by Max Planck

Hagen-Rubens relation between the reflection coefficient, R, and the conductivity:

\fn_cm R\approx 1 - 2\sqrt{2 \epsilon _{o \ \omega / \sigma }}

Heinrich Rubens/

Technical University of Berlin

Ernst Bessel Hagen/

Heinrich Rubens/

Technical University of Berlin

German

 

German

1901 Dependence of saturation current of wire on temperature as:Richardson Law:

Nobel prize 1928

Owen Willams Richardson/Univ of: Cambridge,

Princeton,

King’s College

British
1905

 

 

 

1294

 

 

Theory of Special Relativity

Completion of Lorenz’s work on space-time transformation

Mass–energy equivalence,

E=mc2

Photoelectric effect, E=hf

Publications of 300 scientific papers

Nobel prize in physics, 1921

Bose–Einstein statistics

Albert Einstein/

Swiss Patent Office,

Univ of: Zurich,

ETH Zurich,

Prussian Academy of Science,

Univ of Berlin,

Kaiser Wilhelm Inst,

Inst for Adv Study,

Bose/

Univ of Dhaka

German-American

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian

1906-1913 Development of X-ray spectroscopy

Nobel prize 1917

Charles G. Barkla/Univ of: Cambridge,

Liverpool,

King’s College,

Edinburgh,

British
1906 Invention of electronic amplifier

Sound on film recording, (phonofilm)

180 patents

Lee De Forest/Yale College, (Sheffield Scientific School) American
1908

1911

 

Production of liquid helium

Discovery of Superconductivity

Nobel prize in physics 1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes/

University of Leiden

Net’land
1908

 

 

 

1916-17

 

 

 

 

 

 

Langevin equation: stochastic differential equation of random movement of a particle in a fluid

Langevin dynamics: dynamics of molecular systems

Langevin function: calculation of the magnetization of an ideal paramagnet

Previously a doctoral student of Pierre Curie

————————————–

First ultrasonic submarine detector using Pierre Curie’s piezoelectric effect

2 U.S. patents

Paul Langevin/ESPCI

École Normale Supérieure

Paul Langevin/

ESPCI

École Normale Supérieure

Constantin Chilowsky/

French

 

 

 

 

French

1909-12 Discovery of the diffraction of X-ray by crystals.

Development of X-ray spectroscopy

Nobel prize 1914

Max von Laue/Univ of: Zurich, Frankfurt,

Berlin,Max Planck Inst.

German
1910 Development of X-ray crystallography

Joint Nobel prize 1915

William H. Bragg/Univ of: Adelaide,

Leeds,

University College London

Royal Institution

Univ of: Manchester , Cambridge

British

 

 

 

 

 

1911-1913

1932

1936

Measurement of cosmic radiation using balloon.

Discovery of positron

Discovery of muon

Joint Nobel prize 1936

Victor Francis Hess/Univ of: Graz,

Austrian Academy of Science,

Carl David Anderson/

Calif Inst of Tech

Austrian

 

American

1912

 

1919

1939

 

Development of electronic oscillator using positive feedback.

Development of standard A.M. receiver

Development of F.M radio receiver

42 patents

Edwin Howard Armstrong/Columbia University American
1912-1922 Dale’n light – sun valve , lighthouse

AGA cooker, gas cooker

Losing his sight due to gas explosion

Nobel prize 1912

Nils Gustaf Dale’n/AGA company Sweden
1912 Structure of atoms, and radiation emanating from it using:To arrive at:

RH is Johann Balmer constant

Nobel prize 1922

Niels Bohr/Trinity College, University of Copenhagen, Victoria University of Manchester Danish
1913

 

1914

Oil-drop experiment to measure the charge of the electron (as well as the electron mass)

Photo electric effect

Nobel prize 1923

Robert Andrews Millikan/Univ of Chicago,

Cal. Tech

American
1913 Doppler effect in canal ray,Stark effect: splitting of atomic spectra in presence of electric field

Publications of 300 papers

Nobel prize 1919

Johannes Stark/Univ of : Göttingen,

Hanover,

RWTH Aachen,

Greifswald,

Wurzburg

German
1914- Discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy

Nobel prize 1924

His son also received Nobel prize in 1981.

Manne Siegbahn/Univ of: Lund,

Uppsala,

Stockholm

Swedish
1917 Invention of crystal oscillator using a piece of Rochelle saltU.S. Patent 2,212,845 Alexander M. Nicholson/Bell Labs American
1917- Invention of high pressure apparatus.

Study of the compressibility, electric and thermal conductivity, tensile strength and viscosity

Studies of electrical conduction in metals and properties of crystals – Committed suicide

Nobel prize 1946

Percy Williams Bridgman/Harvard Univ. American
1922 Development of molecular ray method.

Discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton, spin quantization

Nobel prize 1943

Otto Stern/Univ. of: Rostock,

Hamburg,

Carnegie Inst ,

Univ of Calif, Berkeley

German/American
1924-1949 Pauli Exclusion Principle

Nobel prize 1945

Wolfgang Pauli/Univ of: Gottingen,

Copenhagen,

Hamburg,

ETZ Zurich,

Austrian-Hungary-

Swit’rland

American

1924

 

 

 

 

1925

Coincidence method, experimental study of the nuclear reactions, the Compton effect, and the wave–particle duality of light

First German cyclotron

Fundamental research in quantum mechanics

Statistical interpretation of wave function, ψ*ψ

Joint Nobel prize 1954

Walther Bothe/Univ of : Berlin,

Giessen,

Heidelberg,

Max Planck Inst.

Max Born/

Univ of: Frankfurt,

Gottingen,

Edingurgh

West German

West German

1925

1931

Patents : field effect transistor

(FET) electrolytic capacitor

Julius Edgar Lilienfeld/Leipzig University

Amrad, Inc

Ergon Research Laboratorie

Austrian-

 

American

1925-27 Wave nature of electron

Nobel Prize 1929

Louis de Broglie/

Univ of Paris

French
1926 Development of Yagi-Uda antenna Hidetsgu Yagi/,

Shintaro Uda/

Tohoku University

Japanese

Japanese

1926

1926

 

Schrodinger Wave Equation

Fermi-Dirac statistics

Joint Nobel prize 1933

Erwin Schrodinger/Univ of: Vienna,

Paul Dirac/

Univ of: Cambridge,

Miami, Florida State

Austrian

Swiss-British

 

 

1927 Invention of quartz clock Warren Marrison/J.W. Horton /

Bell Labs

U.S.
1927 Introduction of Uncertainty Principle

Nobel prize 1932

Werner Heisenberg/Univ of: Gottingen,

Copenhagen, Leipzig

German
1927 Diffraction of electron at the surface of crystal of nickel, confirming wave nature of electron.

Davisson-Germer experiment:

Confirmation of the de Broglie hypothesis wave-like nature of electron

First time measurement of

Wavelength of electron:

λ =h/p

Joint Nobel prize 1937

Clinton Joseph Davisson/Princeton Univ.,

Carnegie Inst of Tech., Bell Labs

George Paget Thomson/

Univ of: Abardeen,

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge

Imperial College

American

 

 

British

 

 

 

1927 Invention of negative feedback amplifier Harold S. Black/Worcester Polytechnic Inst. American
1928 Raman Scattering: change of wavelength of light deflected from transparent media.Raman spectroscopy

Nobel prize 1930

Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman/IACS,

Indian Inst of Sci,

Raman Research Institute

Indian
1928

1937

Discovery of the linear dependence of resistivity on magnetic field.

Discovery superfluidity

Nobel prize 1978

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa/Inst for Physical Problem Russian
1829 Invention of Van de Graaff generator Robert J. Van de Graaff/

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Princeton University

American
1931-35 Invention of electron microscope Max Knoll,Ernst Ruska/

Tech Univ Berlin

German,German
1932-34

 

 

1947

 

 

Devised a system of Geiger counters for detecting cosmic ray.

Introduction of a theory to account for the Earth’s magnetic field as a function of its rotation, with the hope that it would unify both the electromagnetic force and the force of gravity

Nobel prize 1948

Patrick MaynardStuart Blackett/

King’s College,

Birkbeck, Univ of: London,

Manchester,

Imperial College

British
1932-34 Invention of cyclotron

Patented 1934

Nobel prize 1939

Ernest Lawrence/Univ of :California,

Yale Univ.

American
1934 Neutron-induced radioactivity.

Slow neutron reaction

Fermi–Dirac statistics

Nobel prize 1938

Enrico Fermi/Scuola Normale Superiore,

Univ of: Gottingen,

Leiden, Florence,

Rome, Columbia,

Chicago

Italian-American
1934 Characterizing Cherenkov radiation effect,Observation of the emission of blue light from a bottle of water subjected to radioactive bombardment.

Development of theoretical explanation of above;

Development of Cherenkov detector

Joint Nobel prize 1958

P. A. Cherenkov/Lebedev Physical Inst.

Ilya Frank/

Moscow State Univ, Academy of Science-

Igor Y. Tamm/

Second Moscow State Univ.,

Moscow State Univ.,

Moscow Inst of Physics and Tech.,

Lebedev Physical Inst.

Russians

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1935 Detestation a radio wave from a BBC short-wave transmitter which had bounced off a Handley Page Heyford aircraft.

Development of radar concept

Robert Watson-Watt/War Ministry,

Ministry of Supply

Scottish
1936 Development F.M. detector circuit Dudley E. Foster/RCA License Laboratory, New York, N.Y

Stuart W. Seeley/

Michigan State College, G.E, RCA

Americans
1937 Development of the scanning transmission electron microscope

600 patents

Manfred von Ardenne/Soviet atomic bomb project

TU Dresden

German
1937-39 Invention of Klystron Russell Varian,Sigurd Varian/

Stanford University

American,American
1938 Discovery of Nuclear fission Otto Ha/University College London

McGill University

University of Berlin

Kaiser Wilhelm Inst for Chemistry

Max Planck Society

German
1938- Energy production in stars and sunproton–proton chain reaction

carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle (CNO cycle)

Nobel prize 1967

Hans A. Bethe/Univ of: Tubingen,

Cornell, Bristol,

Manchester

German-American
1938 Use of NMR for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei

Nobel prize 1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi/Columbia Univ,

MIT

Polish-American
1939 Development of a mathematical theory of superfluidity that accounts for the properties of liquid helium II

Nobel prize 1962

Lev D. Landau/Kharkov Poly Tech,

Inst, MSU Faculty of Physics

Russian
1939 Development of F.M. radio receiver Edward Howard Armstrong/Columbia Univ. American
1941 World’s first programmable computer Konrad Zuse/Aerodynamic Research Institute German
1946 Development of new methods for NMR measurement.

Bloch equations, which determine the time evolution of nuclear magnetization

Discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in liquid and solid with his colleagues Robert Pound and Henry Torrey

Joint Nobel prize 1952

Felix Bloch/Stanford University

Edward Mills Purcell/

Harvard Univ,

MIT

Swiss-American

American

1947 Discovery of fine structure of hydrogen spectrum.

Precision measurement of magnetic moment of electron

Joint Nobel prize 1955

Willis E Lamb/Univ of: Arizona,

Oxford, Yale, Columbia, Stanford

Polykarp Kusch/

Univ of: Texas,

Columbia Univ.

American

 

 

German-American

 

 

1947 Invention of point contact transistor.

Joint Nobel Prize 1956

John Bardeen/Bell Labs,

Univ of Illinois

Walter H.Brattain/

Whitman College,

Bell Labs

W.B.Shockley/

Bell Labs, Shockley Semiconductor,

Stanford Univ.

Americans

 

1949 Development of first atomic clock National Bureau of standard U.S.
1949

 

 

1950-65

 

 

1976-80

 

Invention of atomic clocks, based on a hydrogen maser. One second has been defined as the time during which the cesium atom makes exactly 9,192,631,770 oscillations!

Creation of the first geonium atom, measuring precise magnetic moments of the electron and positron with R. S. Van Dyck

First photo of a single atom using ion trap technique

Joint Nobel prize 1989

Norman F.Ramsey/Harvard Univ

Wolfgang Paul/

Univ of : Bonn,

Kiel

Hans Georg Dehmelt/

Univ of: Duke,

Washington, Seattle

American

 

German

 

 

German-American

 

 

1950

 

 

1952-57

 

 

 

1980

 

 

 

 

Theory of superconductor,

Ginzburg-Landau theory

The theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasmas,

Theory of the origin of cosmic radiation

Explanation on how magnetic flux can penetrate a class of superconductors

Origins of magnetoresistance

Low-temperature properties of glasses, high-temperature superconductivity, the Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) atomic gases,

and pioneering work on superfluidity

Joint Nobel prize 2003

Vitaly L. Ginzburg/P. N. Lebedev Physical Inst. Russian Academy of Science

Alexei A. Abrikosov/

Landau Inst.,

Moscow State Univ.

Moscow Inst of Physics and Tech.,

Argonne Nat. Lab

Anthony J. Leggett/

Univ of: Sussex,

Waterloo,

Inst for Quantum Computing,

Univ of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

 

Russian

 

Russian-American

 

 

 

 

British-American

 

 

 

 

 

1952 Invention of the bubble chamber used in subatomic particle physics

Nobel prize 1960

Donald Arthur Glaser/Univ of: Michigan,

Calif. Berkeley

American
1953

1953-57

 

Researches on quantum electronics.

Invention of maser and laser

Joint Nobel prize 1964

Nicolay G. Basov/Lebedev Physical Inst

Alexander Prokhorov/

Lebedev Institute,

Moscow State University

Charles. H. Townes/

Univ of: Calif-Berkeley,

Bell Labs,

Inst for Defense Analysis,

Columbia, MIT,

Russian

 

Russian

 

 

American

 

 

 

 

1954 Invention of solar cell Daryl Chapin/Gerald Pearson/

Calvin Souther Fuller/

AT&T, Bell Labs

Americans

 

 

1954 Building and development of hydrogen bubble chamber.

Nobel prize 1968

Luis Walter Alvarez/Univ of Calif-Berkeley American
1957 First unmanned satellite for 21 days, Sputnik 1 Russian Russian
1957

 

 

1964

Conventional superconductivity, BSC theory“Theory of the Knight Shift and Flux Quantization in Superconductors”

Publication book on the BCS theory,

Theory of Superconductivity

Joint Nobel Prize 1972

John Bardeen/Bell Labs,

Univ of Illinois

Leon N. Cooper/

Brown Univ

John R. Schrieffer/

Univ of: Pennsylvania,

Calif-,Florida,

Florida State Univ,

Univ of Birmingham

Americans

 

1957

 

1971-83

 

 

Theoretical and experimental studies of the Nuclear reaction in the universe

Theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure of evolution of the stars.

380 publications

Joint Nobel prize 1983

William Alfred Fowler/Caltech

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar/

Univ of: Chicago,

Ballistic Research Lab.,

Univ of Cambridge

American

Indian-American

 

 

 

1958

1960

1962

Electron tunneling in semiconductors, Esaki Diode.

Experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in superconductors

Josephson effect (Josephson Junction); Discovery of a super current tunnel through a thin barrier at a junction of two superconductors

Joint Nobel prize 1973

Leo Esaki/Sony

Ivar Giaever/

General Electric,

Brian David Josephson/

Trinity College,

Univ of Cambridge

Japanese

 

 

 

American-Nor,vgian

British

1958

 

 

1959

 

 

 

 

1963

 

Miniaturized electronic circuits, first IC US 3138743 A

Development of integrated circuit

Inventor of handheld calculator and the thermal printer, for which he has patents

He also has patents for seven other inventions.

Proposal the concept of the double-heterostructure laser

Inventor of the heterotransistor used in high-speed- and optoelectronics

Joint Nobel prize 2000

Jack St. Clair Kilby/Texas Instruments

Herbert Kroemer/

Femmeldetechnisches Zentralamt,

RCA Labs,

Varian Assoc

Univ of: Colorado,

Calif-Santa Barbara

Zhores Ivanovich Alferov/

Loffe Physico-Tech

American

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

German

Russian

1960 Invention of the first working laser Theodore Harold Maiman/Hughes Research Laboratories American
1962

 

1962

 

Invention of first LED

Doctoral adviser: John Bardeen

Invention of Josephson junction, Superconductor-insulator-superconductor

Nobel prize 1973

Nick Holonyak/

Univ. of Illinois;

Brian David Josephson/

Trinity College, Univ of Cambridge

American

 

British

 

 

1963

 

 

 

 

 

 

1970-90

 

Contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence.

Pioneering work on laser-based precision spectroscopy and optical frequency comb,

U.S. Patent 6201638

Contribution to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy,

Optical frequency Comb Generator

Precise measurement of Hydrogen atom transition frequency; Balmer and Lyman series

Joint Nobel prize 2005

Roy J. Glauber/Harvard Univ.,

Los Alamos Lab

John L. Hall/

Univ of Colorado-

JILA, NIST

Theodor W. Hansch/

Ludwig-Maximilians Univ.,

Max-Planck Inst.,

Stanford Univ.,

European Lab for Non-Linear Spectroscopy,

(LENS), University degli Studi di Firenze

American

 

American

 

 

American

 

 

 

 

 

 

1964 Discovery of liquid crystal display George H. Heilmeier/Princeton Univ.,

University of Pennsylvania

American
1964 Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation

Joint Nobel prize 1978

Arno Allan Penzias/Rober W.Wilson/

Bell Labs

Americans
1965

 

 

 

 

1969

Groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication.

Publications more than 100 papers and over 30 patents

Invention of Charge Coupled Devices (CCD)

Co-inventor CCD

Joint Nobel prize 2009

Charles K. Kao/The Chinese Univ of Hong Kong,

ITT Corp., Yale Univ.,

Standard Telephone and Cables

Willard S. Boyle/

Bell Labs

George E. Smith/

Bell Labs

Hong Kong-British-

 

 

American

 

Canadian-American

 

1966

 

1967

 

 

1968

 

 

 

 

Theory of the magnetic and dielectric properties of material.

Behavior of electrons in magnetic solids

Antiferromagnetism, symmetry breaking, and high-temperature superconductivity,

Electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems, especially amorphous semiconductors

Transition of substances from metallic to nonmetallic states (Mott transition)

Joint Nobel prize 1977

John Hasbrouck Van Vleck/Univ of: Minnesota,

Harvard Univ,

Univ of Oxford,

Balliol College

Philip Warren Anderson/

Bell Labs,

Princeton Univ,

Cambridge Univ

Nevill Francis Mott/

Univ of: Manchester,

Cambridge, Bristol

Americans

 

1970

 

 

1972

 

1972

Discovery of superfludity, phase transitions to a superfluid phase of 3He.Work on low temperature physics include the antiferromagnetic ordering in solid helium-3.

Discovery of super fluidity in helium-3

Co-discovery of superfluidity in Helium-3

Joint Nobel prize 1996

David M. Lee/Cornel Univ,

Texas A&M Univ

Robet C. Richardson/

Cornell Univ.

Douglas D. Osheroff/

Stanford Univ,

Bell Labs

American

 

American

 

American

 

 

1971 Proposal for memristor Leon Chua/

Univ.of California,

Philippines-American
1971 Invention of laser printer Xerox Co. American
1971 Invention MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

Nobel Prize 2003 (physiology)

Paul C. Lauterbur/

State Univ of N.Y.-Stony Brook,

Univ of Illinois – ,

Carnegie Mellon Univ

Sir Peter Mansfield/

Univ of: Illinois,

Nottingham

American

 

 

 

British

 

 

1972 Looking for the rotation of earth by measuring the rotation of plane of polarization of light propagated along the axis of the quartz crystal.
1973 Development of capacitive touch screen Frank Beck/Université Louis-Pasteur, CERN British
1974 Discovery of the new type of pulsar, named PSR B1913+16, emitting impulses that are extremely regular and stable in the radio wave region.

Joint Nobel prize 1993

Russell A. Hulse/UT-Dallas,

Princeton Plasma Physics Lab,

NRAO

Joseph H. Taylor/

Princeton Univ,

Univ of: Massachusetts-

Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory

Americans
1975 Print-to-speech reading machine for the blind. Commercial text-to-speech synthesizer. Ray Kurzweil/MIT(B.S.)/ Kurzweil Computer Products American
1980 Discovery of the integer quantum Hall effectvon Klitzing constant,

RK = h/e2 = 25812.807557(18) Ω

Nobel prize 1985

Klaus von Klitzing/Univ of: Oxford,

Grenoble High Magnetic Field Lab in France,

Tech Univ of Munich

German
1981

 

 

1981

 

 

1983

Invention of modulation doping, a method for making extremely high mobility two dimensional electron systems in semiconductors

Discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations” (the fractional quantum Hall effect)

Providing a many body wave function, now known as the Laughlin wavefunction

Joint Nobel prize 1998

Horst L. Stormer/Columbia Univ,

Bell Labs

Daniel Chee Tsui/

Princeton Univ,

Bell Labs,

Columbia Univ,

Boston Univ

Robert Laughlin/

Stanford Univ

German

 

American

 

 

 

 

Chinese-

 

1984-1994 “for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves“Joint Nobel prize 2017 Rainer Weiss/MIT,

Kip Thorne/

Cal Tech,

Barry Barish/

Univ of California, Caltech

German,U.S.

 

U.S.

1986

 

1988

 

1988

Discovery the anti-parallel exchange coupling between ferromagnetic layers separated by a thin non-ferromagnetic layer Discovery the Giant magnetoresistive effect (GMR)

Discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) which brought about a breakthrough in gigabyte hard disks from multilayers of iron and chromium,

Joint Nobel prize 2007

Peter Grunberg/ Carleton Univ,Forschungs-zentrum Julich,

Univ of Colorado,

Gwangju Inst of Science and Tech

Albert Fert

Univ Paris-Sud,

Michigan State,

National Autonomous Univ of Mexico

German

 

 

 

 

French

 

 

 

1988

 

1994-98

 

1998

Discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observation of distant supernovae Universe’s expansion rate is not decelerating; it is accelerating

First reported evidence that the Universe’s expansion rate is now accelerating through monitoring of Type 1a Supernovas

Joint Nobel prize 2011

Saul Per Saul Perlmutter/UC Berkeley

Brian P. Schmidt/

Australian Nat Univ

Adam G. Riess/

Johns Hopkins -Space Telescope Science Inst.

American

 

Australian

 

Australian- American

 

 

1989 First commercial handheld GPS U.S. Dept of Defence American
1989 Silicon-germanium transistor Bernie Meyerson/IBM fellow American
1989-1992

 

 

1992

 

 

Discovery of the black-body form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

Detection of tiny fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation, CMB, by satellite, (COBE) project

Joint Nobel prize 2006

John C. Mather/NASA,

Univ of Maryland

George F. Smoo/

UC Berkeley-Lawrence Berkeley,

Lab-Paris, Diderot Univ-Hong Kong,

Americans
1989

 

 

1989

 

1993

 

Invention the bright gallium nitride (GaN) p-n junction blue LED.Creation the white LED and blue laser diodes

Growing p-type GaN p-n-junction-type GaN-based UV/blue light-emitting diode for the first time in the world

Development of blue LED

Holds over 100 patents

Joint Nobel prize 2014

Isamu Akasaki/Meijo Univ.,

Nagoya Univ

Hiroshi Amano/

Nagoya Univ

Shuji Nakamura/

Univ of Calif-Santa Barbara

Japanese

 

Japanese

 

 

Japanese-American

1991 Invention of lithium-ion rechargeable battery Sony/Asahi Kasei Japan
1994 for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae

Joint Nobel prize 2011

Saul Perlmutter/Lawrence Berkeley Nat.Laboratory.

Brian Schmidt/

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Adam Riess/

Space Telescope Science

U.S.

 

Aust-U.S.

 

U.S.

 

1995 Achievements of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms Production the first true Bose–Einstein condensate

Experiments that trap and cool atoms to temperatures close to absolute zero, first groups to realize Bose–Einstein condensation in these systems

Joint Nobel prize 2001

Eric A. Cornell/Univ of Colorado-,

Nat Inst of Standard

Carl E. Wieman/

Univ of: British Columbia,

Colorado-Boulder

Wolfgang Ketterle/

Univ of Heidelberg,

MIT

American

 

American

 

 

German

 

 

1997 Discovery of direct diamagnetic levitation of water Co-discovery of diamagnetic levitation of water

Joint Ig Nobel prize 2000

Andre Geim/Moscow Inst. Of Physics and Tech.,

Inst of Solid State Physics,

Russian Academy of Science,

Univ of Manchester,

Radboud Univ Nijmegen

Michael Berry/

Univ of Bristol

Russian-British

 

 

 

 

 

Net’lands-British

2004 “for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene Andre Geim/See above

Konstantin

Novoselov

Russia, U.K.Net’lands

Russia, U.K.

2007 First efficient non-radiative power transfer at a distance of 2 meters turning on a 60 W light bulb. Marin Soljacic/ (team leader), MIT Croat-American
2008 Invention of memristor proposed by Leon O. Chua in 1971, 57 patents Richard Stanley Williams/H.P. American

References

[1] History of electrical engineering, Wikipedia, 2016.

[2] History of electromagnetic theory, Wikipedia, 2016.

[3] Timeline of electromagnetic theory, Wikipedia, 2016.

[4] Timeline of historic inventions, Wikipedia, 2016.

[5] List of Nobel laureate in physics, Wikipedia, 2017.

[6] Timeline of electrical and electronic engineering, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia